Why Happy Numbers are Also the Naughtiest Numbers in History

A while back we had a post about how Happy Numbers and the Spiral of Four make up a sort of binary code for all numbers in existence. We thought that was all there was to say. How wrong we were! A reader wrote in, giving me more information on how his math class made Happy Numbers the naughtiest numbers in history. » 10/03/12 1:25pm 10/03/12 1:25pm

Why four is the nemesis of happy numbers

What are happy numbers? Primarily, happy numbers are proof that mathematicians take joy in strange things. It seems they have been playing with numbers the way that more normal (cough) people play with action figures, and have decided that there are a whole category of numbers that are happy. And then there is the… » 8/17/12 7:20am 8/17/12 7:20am