Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

An 1862 monograph by pioneering French neurologist Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (1806-1875) is full of disturbing photos of human subjects. Using electrodes, the scientist triggered muscular contractions in their faces. You know, for science.

The scientist was trying to figure out whether there was some kind of evolutionary basis for facial expressions, so he would shock various parts of his subjects' faces to see if he could regularly induce certain expressions.

Terror

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Attention

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Profound attention

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Reflexion

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Cruelty

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Joy

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Crying

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Very unhappy

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Dissatisfaction

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Pain

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Natural laughter

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

False laughter

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Sorrowful Prayer

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Flirtatiousness

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Surprise

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Astonishment

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Fearful

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

More photos of patients

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

Terrifying, Century-Old Photographs from Neuroscience Experiments

____

Top photo: Wikimedia Commons, others: Wellcome Library and Internet Archive.