In 1991, Kazakhstan became the last Soviet republic to declare independence. Six years later, the government moved from the Almaty to Astana (formerly known as Aqmola). There, with the help of architects like Norman Foster, they built a futuristic city on the remains of old buildings from the Soviet era.
Here are the results.
Bayterek (means 'tall poplar'), a 344 ft (105 m) tall observation tower, represents a poplar tree holding a golden egg. It was designed by Norman Foster, built in 1997 as a symbol of the new capital.
Two golden towers, also known as 'the beer cans', 1998
Ak Orda Presidential Palace, the workplace of the President of Kazakhstan, completed in 2004.
The 260 ft (80 m) high building has a blue and gold dome topped with a golden statue.
The 39-story Triumph of Astana, a mixed-use building, opened in 2006. It was modeled after the Seven Sisters skyscrapers in Moscow, Russia. There are offices, apartments and a hotel inside.
Kazakhstan's Parliament building
The Metropolitan Circus
(via Ben Dalton)
Palace of Peace and Reconcilation (also known as the Pyramid of Peace and Accord), a 203 ft (62 m) high pyramid on a 49 ft (15 m) high earth covered block. It was designed by Foster and Partners, opened in 2006.
Headquarters of KazMunayGas, the state-owned oil and gas company of Kazakhstan
Headquarters of the Nur Otan Party
Shabyt (Palace of Creativity, but also known as the Dog Bowl)
This circular building has two concert halls, two film studios, dance room, a library, a large multi-purpose hall, some meeting rooms and the classrooms of the Kazakhstan Arts University.
Astana Music Hall
Kazakhstan Central Concert Hall, designed by Manfredi Nicoletti, opened in December 2009
The Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center, a 500 ft (150 m) high transparent tent designed by Norman Foster, opened in 2010. It has an internal park, a boating river, a shopping center, a minigolf and indoor beach resort and an entertainment venue.
Lazurny Kvartal (Azure Complex), a residential complex, opened in 2011